A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].
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We deal formally with lexis in terms of collocation and lexical sets. The exponent of S in the English text is the item thisa term in the system of English deictics; the Arabic translation equi- valent is haada.
Very often, these alternants, the terms in a linghistic, are the members of a class: It is a curious fact that the Japanese lexical item huro -ba seems to be more easily translatable as bath or bathroom than the Finnish sauna. But, on the second occasion, the interpreter translates a-yas by my brother.
Thus, though the unconditioned probability of the equivalence dans — into is onlythe conditioned probability of this equivalence is very much higher when dans is preceded by certain verbs, e. Request removal from index.
In Ngps, however, we may have rank-shifted clauses and rank-shifted groups as exponents, e. We may, however, roughly equate units of the lowest rank in both languages, labelling both morphemes. There is also replacement of SL graphology by TL graphology — but the TL graphological form is by no means a translation equivalent of the SL graphological form. Grammatical translation requires that the SL text be replaced by a text which is purely TL in its grammar, but still retains all the SL lexical items.
Here, as in the case of geographical dialect, equivalence of absolute location in time is normally neither possible nor desirable.
Two types were available — one with a single ball of ice- cream, the other with two balls of ice-cream side by gheory. Full can be unmarked: Lily rated it liked it Dec 19, In the first place, it is a misrepresentation of the process, and consequently renders the discussion of the conditions of translation equivalence difficult; in the second place, it con- ceals the fact that a useful distinction can be made between translation and another process which we call transference.
J. C. Catford, A Linguistic Theory of Translation – PhilPapers
We may take as an example a small sub- system of phonemes, labial stops in English and Sindhi. It is solely this relationship to the same sub- stantial features that justifies their use translxtion translation-equivalents since they clearly have quite different meanings from the English, items.
These three terms refer to three scales which are part of the general theory of language, and of language-description. Among the units of English phonology we find the syllable: In other words we may systematically intro- duce changes into the SL text and observe what changes if any occur in the TL text as a consequence.
The substantial features relevant to a graphological unit or item are visible marks on paper, stone. Thedookz Moeda rated it liked it Jan 09, There are specific objects, events, relations and so on, in the situation, which lead the performer to produce these particular vocal movements, and no others. It is not a case of one item having several meanings, but of one item having a wide or general contextual meaning, covering a wide range of specific situational features.
In hranslation, this thwory be done without any appeal at all to the contextual meanings of the texts — and hence without any reference to cultural differences. In Chapter 7 we talked about linguistically relevant features of situation substance — those features, or bundles of features, which led to the performer selecting this or that item of his language.
The contrasts are of two kinds i contrasts of tone, i. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Old John, red wine, these three old books, etc.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation
Comparative Linguistics is an extension of descriptive linguistics which establishes relations between two or more languages. It is useful to say in such cases that the TL equivalent is nil, reserving the term zero for use, if at all, when zero is a term operating in a TL system.
Shyam Ranganathan – – Essays in Philosophy 8 1: Similarly in He met Susan at the party the adverbial group at the party is operating directly in the structure of the clause — as exponent of A. Abercrombie has pointed out Problems and Principles, Longmans Green, pp. Open Preview See a Problem? The concept of rank and rank scale is an important one both in theoretical linguistics and in many applications of linguistics, including translation-theory.
They are used by M. What did he achieve? The distinction between- grammar and lexis is not absolute, but rather in the theoty of a dine, with very well marked poles, but some overlap in tranelation.
Halliday 1 2 and influenced to a large extent by the work of the late J. One might describe the system of articles in both French and English as containing a term zero.
For instance, in a novel, idiolectal features in the dialogue of one character may be worked into the plot; other characters may remark on these, and they may partly serve to identify the character. Shyam Ranganathan – – Essays in Philosophy 8 1.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language & Language Learning)
This can be exemplified by considering formal correspondence and textual equivalence between English prepositions and – certain formal classes in French and Kabardian a N. This substantial continuum is dissected and organized into the contextual meanings of English and Navaho linguistic forms roughly as indicated — though, of course, with much less clear- cut divisions than are shown here. Parts of the book are somewhat technical. From back flap of “A Practicaln Introduction to Phonetics”: These are amongst the most frequent category shifts at all ranks in translation; they occur in phono- logical and graphological translation as well as in total translation.
For English, Martin Joos has suggested five styles: Tukagirskij Yazyk Moscow-Leningrad,pp. Grapho- logical translation is sometimes practised deliberately, for special typographic effects, and also occurs involuntarily in the per- formance of persons writing a foreign language. This is the homme I voi-ed and This is the rajul I shuf-ed.
The situa- tional elements which are, so to speak, encapsulated in the contextual meaning of brother might be roughly characterized as male and sibling: On the one hand, it is manifested filled simultaneously by the same biological individual: Clearly, how- ever, such shifts from one system to another are always entailed by unit-shift or class-shift.
It was thus originally intended for an audience of students already fairly well-informed about general linguistics.